Turkish Journal of Agriculture and Forestry

Author ORCID Identifier

DEMET ÇEKİN 0000-0001-8598-2426

MOSTAFA HASSANEN 0000-0003-4731-6435

MARIAM HASSANEN 0009-0008-3623-9968

NAYIRA HASSAN 0009-0007-0307-3351

RICARDA LOTHMANN 0000-0003-2978-6441

HANI SEWILAM 0000-0001-9690-1652




Hydroponic cultivation techniques offer innovative solutions to address challenges in conventional agriculture, such as soil infertility, disease outbreaks, and poor drainage. This study focuses on comparing the performance of different closed hydroponic systems for lettuce cultivation across distinct winter and summer planting seasons. Four closed hydroponic systems—Deep Water Culture (DWC), Nutrient Film Technique (NFT), Media-bed system (MB), and Sandponic (SP)—were evaluated for their impact on vegetative growth parameters, leaf nutrient content, chlorophyll and carotene levels, and water consumption. Our findings reveal that the DWC and NFT systems exhibited greater yield increases in winter (81.90% and 75.64%, respectively) and in summer (29.25% and 18.19%, respectively) compared to other systems. Notably, DWC lettuces consistently showed higher chlorophyll A, B, and carotene content, highlighting their potential for enhanced photosynthetic efficiency and nutritional value. The findings suggest that DWC is well-suited for achieving robust and vigorous lettuce growth and almost invariable water consumption in different seasons. NFT system also showed promising results, particularly effective utilization of the water per plant in both seasons. However, the water evaporation rate for this closed system was higher in summer. Moreover, our results indicate that the use of growth mediums in hydroponic systems may support the holding and storing oxygen and nutrients. The outputs can contribute to enhancing the understanding of selecting hydroponic systems and aligning them with seasonal nuances in controlled greenhouse environments. It provides valuable insights and practical knowledge for precisely cultivating lettuce, promoting sustainable and efficient year-round leafy vegetables.


Deep Water Culture, growing season, hydroponic system, media, nutrient film technique, sandponic

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Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.