Turkish Journal of Agriculture and Forestry




Salinity is affecting more than 6 million hectares of cultivated area in Pakistan. The use of amino acids offers a pragmatic solution for minimizing the adverse effects of salinity on Spinacia oleracea L. (spinach). The present study evaluated the possible potential of amino acids in enhancing the salinity tolerance in spinach and identified the probable underlying mechanisms. The experiment comprised of two factors viz. amino acids with total of seven treatments; control, salinity (sal) 100 mM, Methionine + sal, Phenylalanine + sal, Proline + sal, Tyrosine + sal, Combined amino acids + sal, and two spinach cultivars (Desi Palak and VRI-2019). Salinity stress decreased the morpho-physiological attributes of both spinach cultivars, nevertheless, the application of combined amino acids effectively improved the tolerance against salinity stress. Compared with control, all applications of amino acids increased the root and shoot length, fresh and dry weight, number of leaves, and plant yield per plant of both spinach cultivars. However, the maximum was noted by the application of combined amino acids. Combined amino acids triggered the activities of antioxidants (catalase, superoxide dismutase, peroxidase), increased the contents of free proline, phenolics, flavonoids, chlorophyll a, b, carotenoids, calcium, and potassium in root and shoot while decreasing the reactive oxygen species (hydrogen peroxide) and sodium contents in both spinach cultivars under saline conditions. Overall, the VRI-2019 performed better than Desi Palak. The vigorous growth along with higher salinity tolerance because of amino acid treatments was linked to better chlorophyll contents, higher accumulation of osmolytes, maintenance of ionic balance, and an improved antioxidant defense system in Spinacia oleracea.


Osmoregulations, antioxidants, growth and yield, salinity stress

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