Turkish Journal of Agriculture and Forestry




Maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait.) is a fast-growing pine species of the western Mediterranean Basin with important ecological (e.g., site restoration), economic (e.g., wood production), and social (e.g., recreation) values. Due to global climate change, the growing incidence of drought and wildfires challenges the distribution and growth of maritime pine. Mechanical site preparation (SP) either alone or integrated with chemical weed control can enhance site conditions for conifer seedlings, specifically by improving the physical and chemical condition of the soil and eliminating weeds. The study was established in the eastern Marmara Region of Turkey and included various SP techniques and cultural treatments (CT) of differing intensity applied in a factorial design before the plantation of one-year-old maritime pine seedlings. The SP treatments included raking by a bulldozer (SPB), raking by a bulldozer and then spraying with 1%-(v:v) glyphosate (SPH), and raking by a bulldozer followed by the broadcasting of the subsoil via bulldozer (SPS), the latter being the standard and the most intensive forest management SP treatment. The CT included various combinations of hoeing and foliar applications of glyphosate after planting. The SPH treatment was the overall best SP treatment in terms of seedling performance and physical and chemical soil properties at one and two YAT. The most intensive treatment (SPS) resulted in significantly reduced seedling growth, survival, and deterioration of physical and chemical soil properties, especially soil organic matter and nutrients. Hoeing in a 1-m radius around seedlings one year after planting (i.e. once during the experiment) (H1) significantly improved seedling survival and vigor compared to the control (H0). No additional gain in seedling survival or growth occurred with more intensive CT combinations. In summary, hoeing at the end of the first summer (H1) following the SPH is recommended for enhanced early seedling performance and soil productivity.


Glyphosate, hoeing, industrial plantation, mechanical site preparation

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