Turkish Journal of Agriculture and Forestry




The purpose of the study is to find the effects of different growing site conditions on trees with the vessel features in the woods of Quercus ilex L. growing in different regions through Turkey, and to evaluate the results in respect of forestry. A total of 102 wood samples were collected from 102 sampling plots (as 20 m × 10 m plots) in 9 distribution areas in Turkey. Environmental, climate and stand data were obtained for each plot. Standard wood anatomical studies were performed. The results show that, while vessel element lengths are almost stable in all regions, the most changeable vessel element feature is the vessel frequency in different regions of Q. ilex. Hierarchical cluster analysis based on the mesomorphy and xeromorphy ratios revealed that a total of 15 sites fell into Group 1 (14.71%- very humid), 39 sites (38.24%-humid) into Group 2 and 48 sites (47.06%-dry) into Group 3. The ratios of dry sites are 29.63% in Black sea region, 45.71% in Marmara region and 60% in Aegean region; Black Sea Region promotes more mesomorphic wood formation, those in the Aegean region force xeromorphic wood formation in general. The stands of Q. ilex mixed with Pinus brutia are drier and produce negative correlation with temperature and positive correlations with precipitation. Increasing tree cover, tree height and stem diameter promote wider vessel element diameters and lower number of vessels per square mm. In the individuals of Q. ilex growing on the mountain ridges of Muğla, Davutlar National Park and its around and on the shallow soils are the driest conditions, and safety is more prominent than efficiency in water transport. In the lower elevations and on the deep soils, efficiency in water transport becomes more prominent than safety. Due to its mesomorphic vessel features in lowland humid sites, Q. ilex may be planted in lowlands and humid sites through Turkey.


Cluster analysis, holm oak, mesomorphy, Quercus ilex, vessel, wood anatomy

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