The article presents the results of studying the biochemical composition of the large worldwide vegetable crops collection of the Brassicaceae family, stored at the N. I. Vavilov All-Russian Institute Institute of Plant Genetic Resources (VIR), St. Petersburg, Russia, consisting of 7303 accessions of different status (approximately 50% unique accessions) from 98 countries. Studied vegetable brassicas collection includes representatives of all botanical varieties, agroecological groups and cultivar types of the species cole crops Brassica oleracea L. and related wild Mediterranean species, leafy and root vegetable crops B. rapa L., leafy and root vegetable accessions of Indian mustard B. juncea Czern. subsp. integrifolia (H. West) Tell. and subsp. foliosa L. H. Bailey, radish and small radish Raphanus sativus L., garden cress Lepidium sativum L., salad rocket Eruca sativa L. The application of complex analysis for the study of nutrient and biologically active compounds of economically important crops from six species of Brassicaceae family, which determine the quality of vegetables and feeds, also the search within each crop for sources of valuable biochemical traits for breeding has been presented. The broadest variability of all studied traits between and within crops was revealed, the limits of natural variability were determined. The average values of the studied traits in six species within the family varied to varying degrees: they were similar in the studied species in terms of dry matter content (%), protein, total acidity; differed between species to a moderate degree in terms of the content of ascorbic acid, carotene, and the amount of volatile phenolic compounds. The species differed to a very high degree from each other in terms of the average content of sugars (total, monosaccharides, etc.), carotenoids, β-carotene, chlorophylls a and b, anthocyanins, free amino acids, and free fatty acids. Studied crops, belonging to Brassica oleracea, have the highest total sugar content among the all studied crops. B. rapa leafy crops have the highest content of phenolic compounds; B. juncea - β-carotene and chlorophylls; Raphanus sativus - carotenes and anthocyanins; Lepidium sativum ? the highest content of protein, total acidity, free amino acids; Eruca sativa - carotenoids and free fatty acids. The maximum dry matter content was detected in the forage turnip B. rapa and Brussels sprout (B. oleracea), protein in leafy B. rapa crops and cauliflower (B. oleracea), total sugars and ascorbic acid in head cabbage (B. oleracea), carotenoids in L. sativum and E. sativa, carotenes, including β-carotene, chlorophylls, phenolic compounds, free fatty acids in B. rapa, anthocyanins in R. sativus, free amino acids in B. rapa and R. sativus. Among the studied variety types of each crop, sources of nutrients and biologically active substances were identified, including types with an optimal biochemical compounds composition for the human nutrition, which are proposed to be useful in breeding of the new cultivars for healthy diet and medical applications, as well as for expanding the range of brassicas crops in the diet for the population of the Russian Federation.

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