Turkish Journal of Agriculture and Forestry




Fusarium culmorum is a principal causal agent of root, crown, and foot rot disease in the wheat-growing areas of Turkey. The effects of different fertilization practices, fungicide sprays, and cultivar reactions of 12 wheat varieties were investigated for disease development in greenhouse conditions in 2006-2007. The fertilizers used in the experiments significantly reduced disease by 27.5%-54.7% compared to the nonfertilized control. The plants fertilized with calcium ammonium nitrate (26% N) or composite NPK (15%, 15%, 15%) showed fewer disease symptoms than those fertilized with NPK (20%, 20%, 0%) in the presowing applications. On the other hand, foot rot severity was lower with ammonium nitrate (33% N) than urea (46% N) when applied as a supplement in the 25th and 45th growth stages of the Zadoks scale. Furthermore, fungicide sprays and seed dressing treatments also decreased foot rot symptoms. Seed treatment with tebuconazole lowered disease severity in the subcrown internode compared to the control and it was overall the most effective fungicide with 47.8% efficacy. When plants were sprayed with fluquinconazole, tebuconazole, or epoxyconazole + carbendazim (two times at Zadoks growth stages 31 and 45), disease severity decreased by 96.3%, 93.9%, and 91.0%, respectively. In the cultivar reaction tests, no stable or considerable tolerance was observed in the 12 wheat varieties against foot rot. It may be concluded from this study that fertilizer forms and fungicide preference can play an important role where Fusarium foot rot is the main problem in wheat-growing areas.


Disease severity, fertilizers, fungicides, Fusarium, wheat

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