Turkish Journal of Agriculture and Forestry




The quantification of evapotranspiration and soil evaporation is crucial for agricultural water management. The FAO-56 Penman-Monteith and E-DiGOR models were used to compute reference evapotranspiration (Eto) and bare soil evaporation, respectively, at 17 meteorological stations of South Korea, from 1980 to 2009. The same soil parameters were assumed for all stations in order to compare actual soil evaporation (Ea) rates jointly dominated by atmospheric evaporative demand and soil water availability, as well as the size of rainfall events. The sensitivity of Penman-Monteith type equations to the major climatic variables was determined based on 1-year dataset. The long-term mean annual precipitation and Eto calculated at selected stations over the country were 1339.7 mm and 1087.1 mm, respectively. Precipitation showed noticeable interyear fluctuations, and the annual Eto increased gradually during the study period. A strong correlation between pan evaporation (Epan) and Eto was observed (R = 0.808, P < 0.001), based on daily data of 30 years. Similarly, a significant correlation between Epan and potential soil evaporation (Ep) was existent (R = 0.622, P < 0.01). The Ep rates were lower than the Eto rates (Ep = 0.8 × Eto). The magnitude of Ea, as calculated with the model, reached a level of 63% of Ep. On the other hand, Ea accounted for 29.4% to 50.3% of the total precipitation over South Korea. Potential soil evaporation was more sensitive to net radiation, while reference evapotranspiration was mostly affected by the relative humidity. Wind speed was the less effective variable. The contribution of soil heat flux was negligible. The sensitivity of both Ep and Eto to the same climatic variables showed significant differences among seasons and locations. The aridity index ranged from 0.85 to 2.13, and all the study sites could be classified as humid areas. An aridity index of less than 1 appeared about once every 6 to 7 years, based on the station averages.


Aridity index, evapotranspiration, sensitivity, soil evaporation

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