Turkish Journal of Agriculture and Forestry




Leguminous crops suffer severely in soils poor in phosphorus. A 2-factor factorial experiment was conducted in a net-house to explore the effect of graded levels of P fertilizer (0, 30, and 60 kg P ha^{-1} or P_0, P_{30}, and P_{60}, respectively) together with rhizobium (biological nitrogen fertilizer (BNF)) and/or phosphate-solubilizing bacteria (biological phosphorus fertilizer (BPF)) in terms of nutrient uptake, yield, and quality of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.). Phosphorus was applied as basal dose, while seeds were treated with respective biofertilizer(s) before sowing according to the treatments [BF_0 (control), BNF, BPF, and BNF+BPF]. Concerning the main effects, P_{60} proved superior or equivalent to P_{30}, while among the biofertilizer treatments, BNF+BPF gave the greatest values for nutrient uptake as well as for yield and quality parameters. The interaction between P levels and biofertilizer treatments was generally significant. 30 kg P ha^{-1} applied with N and P biofertilizers (P_{30} × BNF+BPF) was the most profitable interaction for N uptake as well as for yield and quality characteristics. Compared to P_{60} applied alone (P_{60} × BF_0), P_{30} × BNF+BPF resulted in greater N uptake (27.3%), seed yield (21.1%), and the content of seed protein (2.9%) and carbohydrate (5.6%). Furthermore, P_{30} × BNF+BPF was statistically equal to P_{60} × BNF+BPF with regard to N uptake, seed yield, and protein content as well as for most yield components. Thus, P_{30} × BNF+BPF saved 30 kg P ha^{-1} of the costly inorganic P fertilizer to achieve the greatest crop yield and quality.

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