Turkish Journal of Zoology




Vineyards face several biotic threats that compromise the grape quality and quantity. Among those that cause relevant economic impact and have worldwide distribution are the oomycete Plasmopara vitícola, the fungi Erysiphe necator and Botrytis cinerea, and the arthropods Lobesia botrana, Tetranychus urticae, and Phylaenus spumarius (principal vector of the bacterial disease Xylella fastidiosa in Europe). Their management relies primarily on agrochemicals with short persistence; widespread use of these chemicals causes environmental and human health problems. The challenge of sustainable viticulture is to provide ecologically sound alternatives. In this regard, the application of entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) and natural products derived from their symbionts can be an alternative. EPNs are well-known biocontrol agents for soil-dwelling insects. However, current research demonstrates the great potential of both EPN and their derivates as direct bio-tools against some of the key fungal and arthropods pests present aboveground. In addition, recent evidence shows that detecting EPN presence and activity and their relation with other soil organisms associated with them can help us to understand the impact of different agricultural practices on vineyard management. Altogether, this review illustrates the great potential of EPN to enhance pest and disease management in the next generation of viticulture.


Vineyards, Steinernema, Heterorhabditis, Photorhabdus, Xenorhabdus, natural products

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