Turkish Journal of Zoology




Order Diptera is the most important group of animals when it comes to insect immunity research. The largest share of experimental data in the group falls on the genus Drosophila - a model species with a number of advantages. Other crucial representatives are those of the mosquito group, as they are vectors of a number of infectious diseases infecting higher vertebrates and humans. As representatives of the genera, Anopheles, Aedes and Culex are very significant model organisms. In total, more than 40 dipteran species are being actively studied as models in various aspects related to immunity. Together with the representatives of the order Lepidoptera, they are the major source of the knowledge gained so far on the defense mechanisms in insects. The current review demonstrates that the studies conducted on dipteran species concern all existing mechanisms of immune defense, namely antimicrobial peptides, signaling pathways, pathogen recognition, the different types of hemocytes, antiviral and other immune responses (phagocytosis, nodulation, melanization and encapsulation).


Dipterans, antimicrobial peptides, immune responses, signaling pathways, hemocytes

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