Turkish Journal of Zoology




Despite extensive pharmacological approaches, there is no curative therapy for Alzheimer?s disease (AD) or other types of dementias. While current pharmacological options alleviate some symptoms of AD, they can lead to various adverse effects. Hence, nonpharmacological treatment options for AD are often considered with the assumption that they are safe, effective, and economic in managing patients. Furthermore, studies on animal models have suggested that environmental exposures like diet, music, or rewardrelated actions can stimulate neuronal regeneration and differentiation without using any pharmacological factors. The aim of this review is to provide a summary of nonpharmacological treatment options for the management of cognitive, emotional, and behavioral symptoms of AD. In addition, this review provides an overview of the challenging and encouraging experiences and recent studies and problems in cognitive training related to animal models. Nonpharmacological studies of AD are discussed in this literature review in terms of animal models, physical activity, brain stimulation, and the role of social communication.


Alzheimer?s disease, nonpharmacological, animal models, therapy, treatment options

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