Turkish Journal of Zoology




The present study was based on the bacula of 39 male (17 juvenile, 22 adult) stone marten (Martes foina) samples obtained from all geographical regions of Turkey between 1995 and 2016. Morphological variability in 11 characteristics of bacula was investigated. The purpose of this study was to measure numerical characters of the baculum, to identify relationships between measurements, and to evaluate variabilities in its morphology. Weight, total length, base length, base height, base width, apex height, apex width, median width, and median height were significantly greater in the bacula of adults compared to the bacula of juveniles. The most variable characteristic in adults was base width (18.96%). There was a significant relationship between some characteristics of the bacula measured. The strongest positive relationships were observed between median height and baculum weight (r = 0.771), weight and base length (r = 0.755), and median width and weight (r = 0.750) characteristics. Statistical analysis (PCA) also revealed a strong relationship between some characteristics. In particular, positive correlations between width and height sizes in the base (proximal), median, and distal of the baculum, as well as axis?apex height and apex width, suggest relationships that protect the urethra and baculum from fissures and fractures during copulation.


Stone marten, os penis, morphometry, variability, statistical analysis

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