Turkish Journal of Zoology




This study presents information about the year-round phenology of bats of temperate zones in a city area for the first time. In total, 967 individuals of 5 bat species (Nyctalus noctula [87.5%], Eptesicus serotinus [10.6%], Pipistrellus kuhlii [0.8%], Vespertilio murinus [0.9%], and Plecotus auritus [0.1%]) were recorded during 2013 in Kharkiv. The population structures of temperate bat species are complex; segregation of sex and age groups varies spatially and seasonally. Most of the bats (88%) were collected during the hibernation period (January-March and November-December) and the autumn invasion (August-mid-September). The breeding period saw a lower number of bats collected, making up 0.5% of records (May-July). The degree of tolerance to urbanization is species-specific. The bats were found indoors (68.6%), between window frames (26.6%), outdoors (2.8%), in basements (1.05%), and on balconies (0.95%). Bats of temperate latitudes inhabit big cities in significantly increasing numbers in winter, spring, and autumn. They avoid urban areas in both the breeding period and the period of fat-store accumulation before hibernation.


Bats, Ukraine, Kharkiv, monitoring, urban ecosystem, bat phenology

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