The phenology of Pulvinaria floccifera infesting common holly was studied from June 2009 to October 2011 in Central Poland. Live specimens were most abundant on the leaves in July and August, while dead individuals were most numerous in winter and early spring each year. The scale completed one generation per year in the field and both the second and third instar nymphs overwintered. Following the spring molting to the 3rd instar or to the young adult females were observed in April and early May. The young adult females were first recorded in the second 10-day period of May. Oviposition occurred from early June, while egg hatching started in the first 10-day period of July. The second instar nymphs were first observed in the first 10-day period of August, part of them overwintered, mainly on the lower part of leaves, while some of them molted to the third instar nymphs from mid-August through September and October. The overwintering third instar nymphs appeared in late August each year. No adult males or natural enemies were observed during this study. The period of crawler activity is recommended as the optimum time for the successful control of P. floccifera and it occurs in the first 10-day period of July in Poland.
LAGOWSKA, BOZENA; GOLAN, KATARZYNA; KMIEC, KATARZYNA; KOT, IZABELA; DRABIK, EDYTA GORSKA; and GOLISZEK, KATARZYNA
"The phenology of Pulvinaria floccifera Westwood (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha: Coccidae), a new invasive pest on ornamentals outdoors in Poland,"
Turkish Journal of Zoology: Vol. 41:
1, Article 12.
Available at: https://journals.tubitak.gov.tr/zoology/vol41/iss1/12