Turkish Journal of Zoology




In this paper, the bird assemblages of different woody vegetation types are presented in a human-modified Eastern European landscape. The studied territory is part of a Special Protection Area for bird species. The following sampling areas were included in the study: hornbeam-beech, oak-hornbeam, and sessile oak forests; thickets of willow; forests of white willow; scrubs of blackthorn and hawthorn; and orchards. Birds were grouped in a community typical of deciduous forests and in another community typical of coppices and scrubs. Bird species number, alpha diversity, and abundance were significantly higher in the Salici-Populetum association and in orchards than in the other plant associations. The value of beta diversity was highest in the Carpino-Quercetum petraeae association. The lowest spatial heterogeneity and equitability were in the Salicetum triandrae association. The Salici-Populetum association had the highest number of characteristic species. The analysis of the ecological structure of the bird communities showed that forests and orchards are more abundant in species associated with closed forest habitats than other plant associations. It can be concluded that orchards have a bird community influenced by the forest habitats. Along with forests, orchards are valuable habitats for bird species requiring designation of protected areas and species of national interest.


Habitat, conservation, bird diversity, Eastern European managed forests, orchards

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