Turkish Journal of Veterinary & Animal Sciences




Eighteen female Sahiwal calves of average four month of age and 54 kg body weight were selected for the study. The animals were divided into three groups (T0, T1, and T2) on body weight basis. The animals were fed as per ICAR feeding standard (2013) for calves for 90 days. The animals in T0 group T0 were fed as per feeding standard while in T1 and T2 groups, fresh Azolla pinnata was fed by replacing 15% and 30% protein content of concentrate with Azolla pinnata on DM basis. The nonsignificant results were obtained for all the physiological parameters. In addition, the nonsignificant results were obtained for the body weight at different intervals among all the three groups. The blood samples were collected at every fortnight from zero days until the end of the study. Plasma concentrations of cortisol, T3 and T4 have shown nonsignificant results throughout the experiments (p > 0.05). However numerically cortisol level was lower in the Azolla fed groups. There was a significant difference seen in the levels of growth hormone and IGF-1 level in between T0 and T2 groups (p < 0.05). Various biochemical tests such as glucose, protein, NEFA, creatinine, BUN level along with haematological parameters have shown no significant difference (p > 0.05). Also, Azolla has influenced the IGF-1 and GH level leading to faster growth rate. It can be concluded that Azolla pinnata can act as a novel initiative for protein replacement by maintaining the circulating concentration of various blood profiles up to the basal levels along with better growth.


Azolla pinnata, Sahiwal, hormonal, biochemical, physiological, IGF-1

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