Turkish Journal of Veterinary & Animal Sciences




This study was conducted to determine the ultrasonographic features of the liver, gallbladder, spleen, kidneys, and urinary bladder of 24 apparently healthy male and female long-tailed macaques (LTM) and the correlations of organ measurements with body weight and crown?rump length. The animals were grouped into 12 males and 12 females. Examination was performed in sedated LTM using an ultrasound machine with 6.0 MHz microconvex scanner. Ultrasound appearance, dimensions, and echotexture of the liver, gallbladder, kidneys, spleen, and urinary bladder were evaluated. The results showed that there were no sex-related differences in echo mean values, thickness, and length of the selected abdominal organs. The liver was hypoechoic to isoechoic with the right renal cortex, while spleen was isoechoic to hyperechoic to left renal cortex. Spleen was hypoechoic to isoechoic to the liver. Gallbladder and urinary bladder had hypoechoic to hyperechoic thin wall with anechoic lumen. There was a statistically significant and moderate positive correlation between the volume of the left kidney and body weight. The right kidney volume was greater than the left kidney and the total renal volume had a statistically significant and moderate positive correlation with body weight. This study established the reference values for ultrasonographic features of selected abdominal organs of rescued LTM.


Kidney, liver, long-tailed macaques, spleen, ultrasonography

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