Turkish Journal of Veterinary & Animal Sciences




Propolis collected from plants by honeybees is used for the construction and protection of hives. In addition, propolis has been used in the treatment of many diseases since ancient times because of its antimicrobial, antiseptic, antiinflammatory and antioxidant properties. Despite all these positive health effects, propolis can be microbiologically risky for many reasons such as environmental contamination and insufficient personnel hygiene. Therefore, chemical, physical, antimicrobial properties as well as microbiological properties are among the parameters to be investigated. This study aims to explore propolis?s initial bacteriological and parasitological flora using 5 different parameters (total coliform group, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Clostridium botulinum and Nosema spp.). For this purpose, 100 propolis samples produced in Bolu and its districts were collected. Another objective is to determine the bacteriological/parasitological risk factors and contamination ways of the aforementioned pathogens in the propolis producing process. According to the results, 14 (14%) of total coliform group, 5 (5%) E. coli, 38 (38%) S. aureus, 11 (11%) C. botulinum and 8 (8%) Nosema spp. were found to be positive. The data obtained shows that propolis can be contaminated with some microorganisms and parasites during both production and collection processes.


Propolis, pathogenic bacteria, nosema, contamination sources

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