Turkish Journal of Veterinary & Animal Sciences




This study has so far been the first attempt to characterize and quantify skull sexual variation in Kangal dog, by means of geometric morphometric techniques. A sample of 16 adult Kangal crania has been analyzed with this purpose. To obtain a full image of morphological pattern, digital pictures were taken from the ventral, left lateral, and dorsal sides of each skull, and a total of 16, 15, and 16 landmarks respectively were obtained on each image. Skull size and shape differed significantly in all aspects among different sexes, male skulls being bigger. Shape differences were observed mainly on zygomatic arch and muzzle on the dorsal view, pterygoid bone and articular surface to mandibular condyle in the lateral aspect, and cranial width and maxillary bone on the ventral view. Although the sample was comparatively small in number, being the first geometric morphometric approach applied on the Kangal dog, the obtained results will add vital information particularly to understand the cranial shape sexual dimorphism of this unique dog breed in Turkey.


Geometric morphometrics, sexual dimorphism, skull morphometry, Kangal dog, Turkey

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