A case of dicephalus, Arnold-Chiari malformation, spinal dysraphism and other associated defects was described in a newborn Holstein calf. The heads were medially and caudally joined with temporal bones and one common flattened occipital bone respectively. Cranial cavities became narrow dorsoventrally and included elongation of the compressed brains, and caudal displacement and hypoplasia of cerebelli. In the spinal column, variable degrees of dysraphism such as cervico-thoracal diplomyelia with hydromyelia and syringomyelia, lumbar spina bifida with spinal cord agenesis in the region were observed. The calf had also arthrogryposis of hind limbs and cleft palate of both heads.
GÜLBAHAR, M. YAVUZ; YÜKSEL, HAYATİ; SOYGÜDER, ZAFER; and ERÇİN, Ö. FARUK (2005) "Dicephalus, Arnold-Chiari Malformation, Spinal Dysraphism and Other Associated Anomalies in a Newborn Holstein Calf," Turkish Journal of Veterinary & Animal Sciences: Vol. 29: No. 2, Article 56. Available at: https://journals.tubitak.gov.tr/veterinary/vol29/iss2/56