The upper respiratory airways of 367 horses that were healthy but had poor performance in races were examined by endoscope. Disturbances were observed in the following percentages: nasopharyngeal follicular hyperplasia 65.49%, entrapment of the epiglottis 12.3%, larve of Rhinoestrus equi 13.6%, anomalia of the epiglottis 0.27%, neoplasm of the nasopharynx and larynx 87%, left pharyngeal hemiplegia 1.63%, deformation of the nasal bone 0.27% and damaged nasopharynx 0.54%. The aetiology and pathogenesis of these disturbances and their effects on racing performance were investigated.
TAN, HÜSEYİN; KAYMAZ, ALEV AKDOĞAN; YILGIN, CENGİZ; and GÖNÜL, REMZİ (1999) "Disturbances Observed by Endoscopic Examination of the Upper Respiratory Airway Tract in Horses," Turkish Journal of Veterinary & Animal Sciences: Vol. 23: No. 10, Article 3. Available at: https://journals.tubitak.gov.tr/veterinary/vol23/iss10/3