Turkish Journal of Earth Sciences




The Upper Miocene İncesu formation, widely exposed in Düzyayla (Hafik-Sivas), consists of mudstones, conglomerates, lacustrine limestones and lignite. The İncesu formation overlies the gypsiferous Hafik formation of controversial Middle Miocene or Oligocene ages. The mammalian fauna of the lignite horizon includes Hipparion sp., Ceratotherium neumayri (Osborn), Deinotherium giganteum Kaup, Choerolophodon pentelici (Gaudry & Lartet), Adcrocuta cf. eximia (Roth & Wagner), Oioceros wegneri Andree, Helladotherium duvernoyi Gaudry & Lartet and Microstonyx erymanthius (Roth & Wagner), which indicate a Turolian (Late Miocene) age. The palynological assemblage of the lignite is apparently represented by 27 genera and 39 species. Four genera and four species belong to spores, and the others to pollen. The Late Miocene age is supported by the presence of deciduous Angiosperms, such as Quercus, Ulmus, Tilia and Carya, and the abundance of Compositae and Chenopodiaceae together with forms of the Gramineae and Umbelliferae. The mammalian fossils reflect forest and grassland ecosystems. The floral assemblage indicates riparian forest close to a stream and/or lake, mosaic forest, shrubs and grassland areas, and characterizes a warm-temperate climate with temporary dry periods during summer.

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