Many Oligocene Manganese deposits are found in the Trace basin, a Tertiary collisional-collapse type basin in the northwestern part of Turkey. All the mineralizations are originally sedimentary type. The most economically important deposits are around Çatalça; of these, the Binkılıç manganese ore occurs conformably within the Oligocene fossiliferous formations, as a stratiform type manganese deposit. The manganese ores at Binkiliç show a continuity along strike and consists of micro-to Cryptocrystalline pyrolusite, psilomelane, radial manganite, cryptomelane, wad, rhodochrosite and dispersed organic matter, calcite, feldspar, clay minerals, and quartz but generally only minor quantities of limonite and goethite. Mn oxides with variable carbonate admixtures constitute the predominant ores. Fine laminations, oolitic and pisolitic textures, and lithologic characteristics of the sedimentary formations suggest deposition in a restricted marine environment. The compositional trends and geologic evidence of the Binkiliç manganese deposit indicate that Mn oxides were precipitated as chemical marine sediments in a shallow-water environment and are associated with relatively rapid marine transgressive-regressive events which caused the sea-level changes. The first source is uncertain but may have been input of Mn from runoff and fluvial-sediment loads which derived from the metamorphic rocks of the Stranjha Massif.
GÜLTEKİN, Ali Haydar (1998) "Geochemistry and Origin of the Oligocene Binkılıç Manganese Deposit;Thrace Basin, Turkey," Turkish Journal of Earth Sciences: Vol. 7: No. 1, Article 2. Available at: https://journals.tubitak.gov.tr/earth/vol7/iss1/2