Turkish Journal of Earth Sciences




In this study, we present pollen records together with a multiproxy analysis from a sediment core collected from the Güllük Bay (Bargilya Cove, Muğla, SW Turkey), covering the last 400 years. Pistachio shrubland was occupying around the Güllük Bay between 1613 and 1741 AD. However, after 1741 AD, the vegetation canopy suddenly changed and Turkish pine (Pinus brutia) was established. This supports that the main factor affecting the expansion of Pistacia lentiscus was precipitation rather than temperature after 1741 AD. This change is also indicated by high Sr-Ca values, reflecting arid conditions. Two anthropogenic phases developed in the region. The first phase is marked by Olea europeae between 1613 and 1789 AD. The second is characterized by Plantago, Caryophyllaceae, Cerelia, Rumex, and Sanguisorba minor type suggesting pastoralism and agricultural activities between 1789 and 1964 AD. Macrofaunal communities are also indicative of environmental changes. Abra ovata, Cerastoderma glaucum, Bittium reticulatum, and Skenea catenoides were first settlers between 1572 and 1643 AD. The prominent presence of lagoonal species Abra ovata and Hydrobia ventrosa indicates a lagoonal depositional environment in 1799-1948 AD.


Pollen analysis, paleoclimate, paleovegetation, XRF, PCA, gastropods, molluscs

First Page


Last Page