Turkish Journal of Earth Sciences




Medium- and high-K calc-alkaline magmatism of the Shurab (southeast Qom city) and Garmsar (northwest Garmsar city) areas occurred within the Lower Red Formation in the Central Basin behind the Urumieh-Dokthar Magmatic Arc. In terms of whole-rock geochemical analyses and in agreement with the petrographic features, all representative samples of the Shurab area are classified into three groups: group 1 with mainly intergranular texture comprises basalt/trachybasalt, while groups 2 and 3 with trachytic and porphyritic textures, respectively, have basaltic trachyandesite composition. The overall major constituents are plagioclase with composition in the range from An49Ab23 to An75Ab47, clinopyroxene with composition in the range Wo43-45En39-45Fs9-15, and olivine with composition in the range from Fo58Fa31 to Fo67Fa40. Minor minerals consist of opaque minerals and K-feldspar in the range Or41-65Ab33-50An0.69-8. The characteristic accessories are apatite and sphene. In the Garmsar area, rocks are seen as subvolcanic with mafic (basalt) and intermediate (trachybasalt/basaltic trachyandesite) compositions. The Garmsar area rocks represent intergranular, granular, ophitic, and subophitic textures. In these rocks, major mineral phases are plagioclase and clinopyroxene. The minor constituents are olivine, opaque minerals, amphibole, biotite, and quartz. Apatite is the most important accessory mineral. The rocks of both areas display REE patterns characterized by LREE-enriched and HREE-depleted segments typical of arc lavas. Primitive mantle-normalized trace element patterns for samples of both areas exhibit high ratios of strongly incompatible elements with similar bulk partition coefficients (e.g., Th/ Ta and Th/Ce), enrichment in large-ion lithophile elements (LILEs: Cs, Ba, Rb, Th) relative to the high field-strength elements (HFSEs: Ti, Hf, Zr, and REEs), and troughs for Nb, Ta, Ti, and Zr and peaks for Cs, Th, K, and Sr, all of which are indicators for subductionrelated magmatism. Subduction of the Neo-Tethys beneath the Eurasian margin led to upper mantle deformation and metasomatism. Once the Arabian plate collided with the Eurasian margin, subduction ended through a slab breakoff process, and thermal flux of asthenospheric origin uprising through the slab tear induced the thermal erosion of the mantle metasomatized during the previous subduction event and triggered its partial melting. Also, the late Eocene-early Oligocene collision of Eurasian with Arabian plates led to the subsidence and formation of faults and extensions in the Central Basin (i.e. the Shurab and Garmsar areas) such that eruption of medium- and high-K metasomatic magmatism along these faults and extensions caused postcollision volcanism in the Central Basin.

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