Turkish Journal of Earth Sciences




The physical and physicochemical properties of thermal muds (peloids) from 20 spas in Turkey were defined and compared with those of naturally pure clay minerals, smectite, illite, sepiolite, and kaolinite, to define the suitability of their use in pastes, masks, creams, and/or mud baths. The liquid and plastic limit values of the peloids show medium to high plasticity. The values of the pure clay minerals vary from 110 to 369 and 60 to 130, respectively, being higher than those of the peloid samples except for illite and kaolinite. The peloid samples show very soft, soft, semihard, hard, and fluid properties according to the consistency index. The CEC values of the peloids vary from 10.11 to 36.01 meq/100 g. The abrasivity of the peloids and clay minerals ranges from 0.58 to 3.12 mg/m2 and 0.05 to 0.37 mg/m2, respectively. The viscosity values of the peloid samples are variable and the thixotropic values are considerably higher in some peloid samples. In the pure clay minerals, sepiolite shows high values. The oil absorption capacity of sepiolite is higher than that of the other clay minerals. The peloids with high CEC, swelling, and absorption capacity may be suitable for the removal of oils, toxins, and contaminants from the skin.


Abrasivity, consistency limits, absorption, peloid, therapy, viscosity

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