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Turkish Journal of Earth Sciences

DOI

10.3906/yer-1401-23

Abstract

Turtleback surfaces are common elements of highly extended terrains all over the world. This paper presents a 3D model explaining the formation of turtleback surfaces based on field observations made on the Horzum Turtleback of the Alaşehir graben, western Turkey. Three essential features have been determined as forming a turtleback surface. These are 1) the rolling hinge mechanism on a normal fault system, where the initial fault stays operational after forming second and third normal faults in its hanging wall; 2) relay ramps between initial fault segments; and 3) a synextensional intrusion on the shear zone of the initial normal fault at midcrustal level. The strike-slip tectonic setting is not among the essential features as suggested recently for Death Valley turtlebacks.

First Page

479

Last Page

494

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