Turtleback surfaces are common elements of highly extended terrains all over the world. This paper presents a 3D model explaining the formation of turtleback surfaces based on field observations made on the Horzum Turtleback of the Alaşehir graben, western Turkey. Three essential features have been determined as forming a turtleback surface. These are 1) the rolling hinge mechanism on a normal fault system, where the initial fault stays operational after forming second and third normal faults in its hanging wall; 2) relay ramps between initial fault segments; and 3) a synextensional intrusion on the shear zone of the initial normal fault at midcrustal level. The strike-slip tectonic setting is not among the essential features as suggested recently for Death Valley turtlebacks.
Turtleback, extension, normal fault, Death Valley, western Turkey, graben
SEYİTOĞLU, GÜROL; IŞIK, VEYSEL; and ESAT, KORHAN
"A 3D model for the formation of turtleback surfaces: the Horzum Turtleback of western Turkey as a case study,"
Turkish Journal of Earth Sciences: Vol. 23:
5, Article 1.
Available at: https://journals.tubitak.gov.tr/earth/vol23/iss5/1