The Karakaya Complex in the Pontides consists of highly deformed and partly metamorphosed clastic and volcanic series of Permian and Triassic age. It is generally subdivided into two parts: The structurally lower part, called the Lower Karakaya Complex, consists of a mafic lava-mafic pyroclastite-shale-limestone succession metamorphosed in the greenschist and blueschist facies during the Late Palaeozoic or Triassic. The structurally upper part is made up of highly deformed Permian and Triassic clastic, volcaniclastic and volcanic rocks with exotic limestone blocks. There are currently two different models for the depositional setting and tectonic evolution of the Karakaya Complex. The rift model assumes that the Karakaya Complex was formed in a Late Permian rift, which developed into a marginal oceanic basin and closed by the latest Triassic. The subduction-accretion model regards the Karakaya Complex as subduction-accretion units of the Palaeo-Tethys.
OKAY, ARAL İ. and GÖNCÜOĞLU, M. CEMAL (2004) "The Karakaya Complex: A Review of Data and Concepts," Turkish Journal of Earth Sciences: Vol. 13: No. 2, Article 1. Available at: https://journals.tubitak.gov.tr/earth/vol13/iss2/1