The thermionic vacuum arc (TVA) discharge with evaporating anodes employing directly heated thermionic cathodes is investigated. The TVA discharge generates a pure, gas-free metal vapor plasma containing ions with a directed energy. The TVA is strongly controlled by the cathodic electron beam and there is a quite good stability of important operation parameters like the arc voltage and the arc current.
AKAN, TAMER (2003) "Operation Parameters of The Thermionic Vacuum Arc Discharge," Turkish Journal of Physics: Vol. 27: No. 1, Article 7. Available at: https://journals.tubitak.gov.tr/physics/vol27/iss1/7