The nature of $SO(3)$ breaking into its closed subgroups and the emergence of nonabelian cosmic strings are discussed. Relevance to GUT breaking and thereby to cosmology is pointed out. Classification of cosmic strings are associated with the affine ADE Lie algebras.
KOCA, MEHMET (2000) "Nonabelian Cosmic Strings from SO(3) Gauge Symmetry," Turkish Journal of Physics: Vol. 24: No. 3, Article 19. Available at: https://journals.tubitak.gov.tr/physics/vol24/iss3/19