Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences




Congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract(CAKUT) are the leading causes of childhood chronic kidney disease (CKD). The etiology of most of the cases is thought to be multifactorial. In this study, risk factors for CAKUT and the effect of mobile phone-related electromagnetic field (EMF) exposure during pregnancy were investigated.Materials and methods: Fifty-seven cases and 57 healthy controls under 2 years of age were included and their mothers were subjected to a questionnaire. Groups were compared for parents’ demographics, pregestational (chronic disease, body mass index, use of the folic acid supplements) and antenatal variables (gestational disease, weight gain during pregnancy,) and exposures during pregnancy. To assess mobile phone-related radiation exposure, all participants were asked about their daily call time, the proximity of the phone when not in use, and the models of their mobile phones. The specific absorption rate (SAR) of the mobile phones and the effective SAR value (SAR × call time) as an indicator of EMF exposure were recorded.Results: Excess weight gain according to BMI during pregnancy was related to an increased risk of CAKUT (p=0.012). Folic acid use before pregnancy was protective for CAKUT (p = 0.028). The call time of mothers of the CAKUT group was significantly longer than the control (p = 0.001). An association was observed between higher effective SAR values and increased risk of CAKUT (p = 0.03). However the proximity of the mobile phone to the mother’s body when not in use was not found as a risk factor.Conclusion: The etiology of CAKUT is multifactorial. O hone call and higher EMF exposure duringpregnancy increases the risk of CAKUT in the offspring.


Congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract, specific absorption rate, mobile phone, electromagnetic field, pregnancy

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