Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences




Nocturnal enuresis can be frustrating for children and their families as the child ages. Our aim is to evaluate urine aquaporin 2 (AQP-2) as a noninvasive biomarker of water balance in children with primary monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis (PMNE).Material and methods: The study included 90 children; sixty-eight children suffering from PMNE aged (9.57 ± 2.16) years and 22 healthy children with good toilet control, matched sex and age. All enuretic children were subjected to complete history taking, clinical evaluation, and bed wetting diary. Serum arginine vasopressin (AVP) and urine AQP-2 were tested in the morning (at 9–11 am) and evening (at 9–11 pm). Blood urea, creatinine, Na, glucose, urine osmolality, Ca/Cr, Alb/Cr and specific gravity were tested simultaneously.Results: Serum AVP, urine AQP-2, and urine osmolality were statistically lower in patients than controls. Patients had a significantly lower level of night serum AVP concentrations, urine AQP-2, and urine osmolality than the corresponding morning level. Urine AQP- 2 was significantly correlated with urine osmolality (p < 0.05). AQP-2 had a sensitivity of 90% and a specificity of 70%. However, no statistically significant correlation was found between serum AVP and urine AQP-2.Conclusion: Primary monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis in children could be associated with reduction of urine excretion of AQP- 2 at night. Urine AQP-2 is significantly correlated with urine osmolality. Therefore, it may be a noninvasive biomarker of hydration status in children with PMNE, with good sensitivity and specificity.


Aquaporin 2, vasopressin, nocturnal enuresis

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