Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences




Background/aim: Due to the increasing mortality and morbidity rates in diabetes mellitus (DM), which is one of the biggest health problems of our age, many treatment modalities are still being tried. The positive effects of metformin (MET) and physical exercise (EXE) on the pathophysiology of diabetes are well known. In this study, it was aimed to detail these positive effects of MET and EXE in combination on the basis of inflammation, apoptosis mechanisms, and endogen nesfatin-1 (NES-1) synthesis. Materials and methods: Twenty-seven type 2 DM (DM-2) male Wistar Albino rats were divided into 4 groups, as the high-fat diet (HFD), MET, EXE, and MET+EXE groups. The total duration of the study was 3 months. At the end of the experiment, blood glucose and lipid profiles were measured. Histopathological evaluation was performed on the cardiac and aortic tissues and apoptotic markers were evaluated immunohistochemically. Inflammatory markers and NES-1 levels were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results: The plasma glucose, homeostatic model evaluation-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) levels increased, and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels decreased significantly in the HFD group. In the treatment groups, the glucose, HOMA-IR, LDL, NES-1 levels in the plasma, as well as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1ß), IL-6, caspase-3 (Cas-3), Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax), and histopathological findings of inflammation in tissues were decreased. Additionally, there was an increase in plasma insulin, HDL, and tissue B-cell lymphoma-2 and levels. Conclusion: It was observed that the MET and EXE treatments in the DM-2 model reduced cellular damage mechanisms such as inflammation and apoptosis. The decrease in NES-1 levels was thought to be secondary to this antiinflammatory effect. In conclusion, the results demonstrated the effectiveness of EXE in reducing DM-2 and the NES-1 levels. Further studies are needed to evaluate the effect in different EXE models and treatment durations.


Bcl2, diabetes mellitus, heart, inflammation, nesfatin-1, swimming exercise

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