Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences




Background/aim:It wasaimed herein to investigate coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in cancer patients and compare hematological and solid organ cancer patients in terms of the course and outcome of this disease. Materials and methods:Data from cancer patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 infection were analyzed retrospectively. Risk factors for poor prognosis and the effect of vaccination on the clinical outcomes of the patients were evaluated. Results:A total of 403 cancer patients who were diagnosed with COVID-19 between March 1st, 2021, and November 30th, 2022, were included, of whom 329 (81.6%) had solid and 74 (18.4%) had hematological cancers. Hospitalization and intensive care unit (ICU) admission rates were significantly higher in the hematological cancer patients compared to the solid organ cancer patients (73.0% vs. 35.9%, p< 0.001 and 25.7% vs. 14.0%, p= 0.013, respectively). The COVID-19-related case fatality rate (CFR) was defined as 15.4%, and it was higher in the hematologicalcancer patientsthan inthe solid organ cancer patients (23.0% vs. 13.7%, p= 0.045) and was higher in patients with metastatic/advanced disease compared to the other cancer stages (p< 0.001). In the solid organ cancergroup, hospitalization, ICU admission, and the COVID-19 CFR were higher in patients with respiratory and genitourinary cancers (p< 0.001). A total of 288 (71.8%) patients had receivedCOVID-19 vaccination; 164 (56.94%) had≤2 doses and 124 (43.06%) had≥3 doses.The hospitalization rate was higher in patients with ≤2 doses of vaccine compared to those with ≥3 doses (48.2% vs. 29.8%,p= 0.002). Patients with COVID-19- related death had higher levels of leucocyte, neutrophil, D-dimer, troponin, C-reactive protein (CRP), procalcitonin, and ferritin and lower levels of lymphocyte than the survivors. In the logistic regression analysis,the risk of COVID-19-related mortality was higher in the hematological cancer patients(OR:1.726), those who were male (OR:1.757), and with the Pre-Delta/Delta variants (OR:1.817). Conclusion:This study revealed that there is an increased risk of COVID-19-related serious events (hospitalization, ICU admission, or death) in patients with hematological cancerscompared with those who have solid organ cancers. It wasalso show cine is more protective against severe illness and the need for hospitalization than ≤2 doses.


Cancer patients, COVID-19, COVID-19 vaccination

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