Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences




Ulcerative colitis is a chronic, immune-mediated disease characterized by recurring episodes of mucosal inflammation in the colon and rectum. The primary pathogenic mechanism of ulcerative colitis is the dysregulation of the mucosal immune response. The disease follows a relapsing-remitting course, and the goal of management is to successfully induce and then maintain remission. Effectively managing this chronic disease requires addressing all aspects of it. Currently, we have various antitumor necrosis factor agents and novel biologics available for treating ulcerative colitis patients with moderate-to-severe disease. However, none of the existing treatments are considered entirely satisfactory or ideal in these cases. After extensive progressive research, oral small molecule therapies targeting mediators of ongoing inflammation represent an exciting and revolutionary change in the treatment of ulcerative colitis, especially for patients with moderate-to-severe disease. In this review, we aimed to summarize the available experience and ongoing research on oral small molecule agents in the management of ulcerative colitis. The available experience and ongoing research with promising outcomes provide convincing evidence that the value of oral small molecule agents is fact not fancy.


Ulcerative colitis, sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor modulators, tofacitinib, upadacitinib, ozanimod

First Page


Last Page