Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences




Background/aim: Titanium dioxide nanoparticles are widely used in a variety of products, including sunscreens, paints, and ceramics. However, their increasing use has raised concerns about their potential health risks. Titanium dioxide nanoparticles have been shown to have the ability to enter the bloodstream and accumulate in various tissues, reaching the fetus via the placenta. The aim of this study was to investigate the cytotoxic effects of titanium dioxide nanoparticles on a human embryonic lung cell line (HEL 299/An1) and the formation of oxidative DNA damage. Materials and methods: The cytotoxic effects of brookite-based titanium dioxide nanoparticles (<100 nm) were assessed using the 3-(4,5-dimethyldiazol-2-yl)-2,5 diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay for 24 and 48 h. Cell titanium levels were determined using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Oxidative DNA damage was assessed by measuring the levels of 8-hydroxy-2- deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) as a biomarker. Results: Titanium dioxide nanoparticles caused dose-dependent cytotoxicity in HEL 299/An1 cells. The IC50 values were 25.93 μM and 0.054 μM after 24 h and 48 h of exposure, respectively. Cell titanium levels were found to be 25,967 ppb after 24 h and 210,353 ppb after 48 h (p < 0.01). 8-OHdG was detected at 32.96 ng/mL after 24 h of exposure and 17.89 ng/mL after 48 h of exposure. Conclusion: In our study, it was shown that titanium nanoparticles caused dose-dependent cytotoxicity and oxidative DNA damage in human embryonic lung cells. The nanoparticles also accumulated in cells and were taken up in higher amounts after 48 h of exposure. These findings suggest that titanium dioxide nanoparticles may pose a health risk, especially for pregnant women who may not be aware of their pregnancy. Therefore, it is important to take preventive measures to reduce exposure to these nanoparticles.


Titanium dioxide nanoparticles, oxidative DNA damage, cytotoxicity

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