Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences




Background/aim: Dental caries is a frequently occurring and multifactorial chronic disease in children resulting from the interaction of cariogenic bacteria and host susceptibility. The aim of this study was to elucidate the impacts of primary immunodeficiency disorders (PIDs) on microbiota of dental caries in children by 16S rRNA gene-based metagenomic analysis. Materials and methods: Enrolled in this study were 15 children with primary PID with caries (PID group) and 15 healthy children with caries as a control (CG). The DMFT index, saliva flow rate, and buffering capacity of each participant were assessed before the metagenomic analyses were conducted. For taxonomic profiling, the reads were obtained by high-throughput sequencing of the V3?V4 hypervariable region of 16S rRNA. Results: The DMFT score, saliva flow rate, and buffering capacity of the groups were similar. The flow rate and buffering capacity had no correlation with the number of species with 95% confidence. The metagenomic analysis resulted in the identification of 2440 bacterial species in all of the samples. Among the 50 most prevalent species present at ?1% relative abundance, Prevotella melaninogenica and Prevotella salivae were differentially more abundant in the PID group. The PID group and CG showed similar species richness and evenness, but 4 of the 5 samples with the highest Shannon-Weiner and Inverse Simpson indices belonged to the PID group. The Spearman test results for correlation of the species in the PID subgroups showed that Prevotella oris had a positively correlated relationship with both Scardovia wiggsiae and Saccharibacteria genera incertae sedis. Conclusion: This study provided insight into the caries microbiota of children with immunodeficiency diseases. Differentially abundant species, novel bacterial associations, and unique bacterial species were disclosed in the PID samples, indicating the role of the immune system in altering the caries microbiota. The prominent bacterial species and associations in the PID group should be suspected in regard to their link with present or future diseases.


Children, dental caries, microbiota, 16S rRNA, immunodeficiency

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