Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences






Background/aim: Ankaferd blood stopper® (ABS) is an herbal extract consisting of mixtures of Alpinia officinarum, Gycyrrhiza glabra, Vitis vinifera, Thymus vulgaris, and Urtica dioica plants and has been used in recent years in Turkish medicine as a hemostatic agent. Despite its extensive usage, there is no information available about the drug interaction in HepG2 cells. The current work evaluated the effect of ABS on the expression of CYP1A1-1A2, CYP2E1, and CYP3A4 isozymes that are primarily involved in drug and carcinogen metabolism. Materials and methods: We selected HepG2 cells as in vitro cellular models of the human liver. The cells were treated with different concentrations of ABS [0.25%-40% (v/v)]. A crystal violet staining assay was used to determine the cytotoxicity of ABS. We examined drug-metabolizing enzymes, including 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (CYP1A1), 7-methoxyresorufin O-demethylase (CYP1A2), aniline 4-hydroxylase (CYP2E1), and erythromycin N-demethylase (CYP3A4), in vitro in HepG2 cells. The expression (mRNA, protein) levels of drug-metabolizing enzymes were analyzed by qPCR and Western blotting, respectively. Results: The EC05 and EC10 values for ABS were 0.37% and 0.52% (v/v), respectively. Therefore, 0.37% and 0.52% (v/v) doses were used for the remaining portion of this study. Investigation of the expression and activity levels revealed that CYP1A1-1A2, CYP2E1, and CYP3A4 activities were not affected by ABS significantly, with qPCR and Western blot results corroborating this result. Conclusion: Our study found that the activity, mRNA, and protein expression levels of CYP isozymes did not change with the application of ABS, suggesting that when humans are exposed to ABS, there may not be any risk associated with clinical drug toxicity, cancer formation, and drug metabolism disorders in humans.


Ankaferd blood stopper® (ABS), cytochrome P450 (CYP), HepG2 cells, drug-metabolizing enzymes, herb-drug interactions

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