Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences




Background/aim: For identifying hemorrhagic shock in trauma patients, some objective data are needed. The use of base excess (BE) and lactate values have been originated. In this study, it was aimed to determine the usability of end tidal carbon dioxide (ETCO2) in patients with multiple trauma for recognizing hemorrhagic shock. Materials and methods: Patients who were admitted to the emergency department between June 2019 and February 2020 with high- energy multiple trauma were included in the study. ETCO2 and BE values were measured. Correlation coefficients were calculated to determine correlations between ETCO2 and BE levels. Results: One hundred and twenty-two patients were included in the study. Eighty-nine (73%) were men and 33 (27%) were women, and the mean age of the study population was 38.70 ± 19.18. The mortality rate was 14.8% in the study population. The correlation between ETCO2 and BE values was significant (r: 0.27) and in the same range in the Bland-Altmann analysis. ETCO2 levels above 35 were specific for stage 1 hemorrhagic shock. ETCO2 levels below 30 were sensitive for stage 2 and 3 hemorrhagic shocks and when the levels were measured below 22 it was found specific for stage 4 shock. The specificity increased to 99% at levels below 18. The sensitivity for ETCO2 values below 22 for predicting mortality was 33.33%, the specificity was 89.42%, the positive predictive value was 35.29% and the negative predictive value was 88.57%. The sensitivity for BE values below -10 for predicting mortality was 50%, the specificity was 93.27%, the positive predictive value was 56.25% and the negative predictive value was 91.51%. Conclusion: ETCO2 measurement can be a useful parameter as a noninvasive and simple technique in predicting and classifying hemorrhagic shock, which is the leading cause of mortality in trauma patients. Mortality rates increased when ETCO2 was measured below 22 and these patients are more likely to be in the critical hemorrhagic shock state.


Trauma, ETCO2, base excess (BE), hemorrhagic shock, emergency department

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