Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences




: In the Wuhan province of China, almost two years ago, in December 2019, the novel Coronavirus 2019 has caused a severe involvement of the lower respiratory tract leading to an acute life-threatening respiratory syndrome, coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19). Subsequently, coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) rapidly spread to the entire world causing a pandemic and affected every single person on earth either directly or indirectly with destroying all facets of social life and economy. Since the announcement of COVID-19 as a global pandemic, we have witnessed tremendous scientific work on all aspects of COVID-19 across the globe, which has never been witnessed before. The most remarkable achievement would be the introduction of vaccines, which provide protection from the severe infection and is the only premise for the control of disease. However, despite the tremendous work, the number of treatments either antiviral or immunomodulatory for infected patients are considerably limited, yet disease is causing substantial morbidity and mortality. COVID-19 follows heterogenous disease course among infected individuals, and dysregulated immune system is primarily responsible for the worse outcomes. Immune deficiency, being on corticosteroids for inflammatory diseases, delayed interferon response and advanced age adversely influence prognosis with impairing viral clearance. On the other hand, exuberant immune response with features of cytokine storm is the leading cause of death, which can be alleviated by use of either general immunosuppression with corticosteroids or selective neutralization of potent pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-1 and IL-6. Herein, we summarized the potential effective immunomodulatory treatments emphasizing in which patient population it is the most suitable, which dose should be administered, and which is the most appropriate timepoint to administer the drug during the course of the disease.


SARS-CoV-2, COVID-19, inflammation, cytokine storm, treatment, rheumatology

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