Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences




Background/aim: This study aims to evaluate of olfactory and gustatory functions of COVID-19 patients and possible risk factors for olfactory and gustatory dysfunctions. Materials and methods: The cross-sectional study included adult patients who were diagnosed with COVID-19 in Gazi University Hospital between April 2020 and June 2020. Volunteered patients participated in a survey in which olfactory and gustatory functions and various clinical information were questioned. Sinonasal Outcome Test-22 was also administrated to all patients. Results: A hundred and seventy-one patients participated in this study. Olfactory and gustatory dysfunctions rates were 10.5% (n: 18) and 10.5% (n: 18), respectively. Patients without any symptom other than smell and taste dysfunctions were clustered as group 1 and patients who are clinically symptomatic were clustered as group 2. Olfactory dysfunction occurred in 8% of group 1 and 17.4% of group 2 (p = 0.072). Gustatory dysfunction rate of smokers was 19.7% and significantly higher than gustatory dysfunction rate of nonsmokers (5.5%) (p = 0.007). Twenty-seven-point-eight percent of the patients with olfactory dysfunction (n = 5) were male and 72.2% (n: 13) were female. Sex did not show significant effect on rate of olfactory dysfunction. Twenty-five patients participated in psychophysical olfactory function test. No participant reported olfactory dysfunction at the time of test. Of the participants, 64% (n: 16) were normosmic and 36% (n: 9) were hyposmic according to Sniffin' Stick test. Conclusion: Olfactory and gustatory dysfunctions are more common in patients who are clinically symptomatic than those diagnosed during contact tracing. Objective tests may show that frequency of olfactory dysfunction is greater than frequency of self-reported olfactory dysfunction.


COVID-19, anosmia, ageusia, sniffin sticks

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