Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences




Background/aim: Treatment of severe hypercapnic respiratory failure (HRF) has some challenges in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), especially when lung protective ventilation (LPV) strategies are required. Extracorporeal CO2 removal (ECCO2R) therapy is an emerging option to manage hypercapnia while allowing LPV in these cases. However, further data on ECCO2R use is still needed to make clear recommendations. Materials and methods: This study was conducted on patients admitted to intensive care unit (ICU) between January 1st, 2016 to December 31st, 2019. The medical records were retrospectively scanned in institutional software database. Patients who received invasive mechanic ventilation (iMV) support due to severe HRF related to COPD or ARDS were included in the analyses. Patients were grouped according to treatment approaches as that ECCO2R therapy in addition to conventional treatments and conventional treatments alone (controls). Groups were compared for 28-day survival, iMV duration, and length of stay (LOS). Results: ECCO2R therapy was noted in 75 of the cases among included 395 patients (COPD n = 256, ARDS n = 139) out of scanned 1715 medical records. The survival rate of ECCO2R patients was 68% and significantly higher than 58% survival rate of controls (p = 0.025), with relative risk reduction (RRR) = 0.16, absolute risk reduction (ARR)= 0.10, number need to treat (NNT) = 10, and odds ratio (OR) = 1.5. In addition, iMV duration (12.8 ± 2.6 vs. 17.1 ± 4.9 days, p = 0.007) and LOS (16.9 ± 4.1 vs. 18.9 ± 5.5 days, p = 0.032) were significantly shorter than controls. Repeated measure analyses showed that LPV settings were successfully provided by 72 h of ECCO2R therapy. Subgroup analyses according to diagnoses of COPD and ARDS also favored ECCO2R. Conclusion: ECCO2R therapy significantly improved survival, iMV duration and LOS in patients with severe HRF due to COPD or ARDS, and successfully provided LPV approaches. Further studies are needed to assess promising benefits of ECCO2R therapy.


Extracorporeal carbon dioxide removal, ECCO2R, hypercapnic respiratory failure, artificial membranes, survival, intensive care

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