Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences




Background/aim: To adapt the Sunnybrook facial grading system (SFGS) into Turkish and perform validation and reliability studies on the Turkish version. Materials and Methods: The original English version of the SFGS was translated into Turkish by performing a linguistic validity study based on international standards. The evaluators comprised 6 physicians. Evaluations were performed twice independently using the video recordings of 65 facial palsy patients. Synchronously, the House-Brackman facial grading system (HBFGS) was filled out to display concurrent validity. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and Cronbach's alpha was used for the examination of the inter- and intra-rater reliability. As another indication of reliability, the generalizability (G) was also examined. Results: The ICC for the inter-rater reliability for resting symmetry, symmetry of voluntary movement, synkinesis, and the composite score, which are 4 components of the SFGS, were determined, respectively, as 0.822, 0.956, 0.606, and 0.957 for the first evaluation, and 0.805, 0.965, 0.584, and 0.965 for the second evaluation. For the intra-rater reliability, the ICC were determined as 0.842, 0.956, 0.794, and 0.937, while the Cronbach's alpha coefficients were determined as 0.809, 0.956, 0.792, and 0.948, respectively. The G coefficient was determined as G = 0.772. For the concurrent validity, a strong correlation was found between the SFGS and HBFGS scores. Conclusion: The present study adapted the SFGS into Turkish, and demonstrated that the adapted scale was valid and reliable. The Turkish version can be used for the evaluation of facial palsy, the follow-up of treatment efficiency, and standardization in reporting outcomes with the international literature.


Facial nerve, facial palsy, Sunnybrook facial grading system, validation

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