Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences




Background/aim: The central nervous system is one of the major targets in lead exposure. Biomarkers for the diagnosis and follow-up of lead exposure have not been identified. In this study, serum S100B, neuron-specific enolase (NSE), and glutamate receptor 1 (GRIA1) levels were determined as possible biomarkers for lead neurotoxicity. Material and methods: Twenty-five subjects with chronic lead exposure and 25 controls were included in the study. NSE and S100B were measured by electrochemiluminescence immunoassay with a Cobas E601 analyzer. GRIA1 levels were measured with an ELISA kit using a quantitative sandwich enzyme immunoassay technique. Results: GRIA1 levels were significantly higher in the lead exposure group than in the control group. No significant differences for NSE, S100B, ALT, AST, or creatinine in sera were found between lead exposure and control groups. Conclusion: Subjects with chronic lead exposure are found to have increased glutamate receptor levels and do not seem to have glial or neuronal damage, which can be demonstrated with the elevation of NSE and S100B levels. GRIA1 levels might be used as a biomarker for the neurotoxicity of lead.


Lead exposure, neuron-specific enolase, GRIA1, S100B, neurotoxicity

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