Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences




Background/aim: VKORC1 and CYP2C9 genetic polymorphisms may not accurately predict warfarin dose requirements. We evaluated an existing warfarin dosing algorithm developed for Malaysian patients that was based only on VKORC1 and CYP2C9 genes. Materials and methods: Five Malay patients receiving warfarin maintenance therapy were investigated for their CYP2C9*2, CYP2C9*3, and VKORC1-1639G>A genotypes and their vitamin K-dependent (VKD) clotting factor activities. The records of their daily warfarin doses and international normalized ratio (INR) 2 years prior to and after the measurement of VKD clotting factors activities were acquired. The mean warfarin doses were compared with predicted warfarin doses calculated from a genotypic-based dosing model developed for Asians. Results: A patient with the VKORC1-1639 GA genotype, who was supposed to have higher dose requirements, had a lower mean warfarin dose similar to those having the VKORC1-1639 AA genotype. This discrepancy may be due to the coadministration of celecoxib, which has the potential to decrease warfarin's metabolism. Not all patients' predicted mean warfarin doses based on a previously developed dosing algorithm for Asians were similar to the actual mean warfarin dose, with the worst predicted dose being 54.34% higher than the required warfarin dose. Conclusion: Multiple clinical factors can significantly change the actual required dose from the predicted dose from time to time. The additions of other dynamic variables, especially INR, VKD clotting factors, and concomitant drug use, into the dosing model are important in order to improve its accuracy.


Warfarin, dosing algorithm, CYP2C9, VKORC1, PCR-RFLP, clotting factor activities

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