Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences




Background/aim: The effect of smoking on inflammatory biomarkers in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) is well established in the presence of periodontal inflammation. However, it is not clear if smoking has an influence on matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) and growth factor levels in the GCF of periodontally healthy subjects. The aim of this study was to investigate GCF levels of MMP-1, MMP-8, transforming growth factor (TGF)-ß1, platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-AB, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in smoking versus nonsmoking periodontally healthy subjects. Materials and methods: Thirty-two periodontally healthy subjects were included in this study. Probing depths, bleeding on probing, and plaque index was assessed. GCF levels of MMP-1, MMP-8, TGF-ß1, PDGF-AB, and VEGF were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results: No significant differences were observed in the distribution of demographic data between study groups. GCF total amount of PDGF-AB was significantly lower in smokers compared to nonsmokers (P = 0.014). Total amount of GCF MMP-1, MMP-8, TGF-ß1, and VEGF levels were similar in both study groups (P = 0.022). Conclusion: Smoking has the effect of decreasing GCF PDGF-AB while it does not affect GCF MMP-1, MMP-8, TGF-ß1, and VEGF in periodontally healthy subjects. Since increased levels of these molecules are involved in periodontal breakdown, our findings may emphasize the importance for maintenance of periodontal health in smokers.


Smoking, gingival crevicular fluid, matrix metalloproteinases, cytokines

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