Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences




To identify factors associated with increased smoking risks among Kırıkkale University students using a questionnaire. Smoking is a widespread habit in Turkey and a major public health problem in the world. Materials and methods: We assessed 1734 (11.6% of 15,000 total) students (869 males and 866 females, both smokers and nonsmokers) at Kırıkkale University with the questionnaire, which included questions about age, gender, smoking status of student, smoking status and education levels of parents, income, daily sports activities, smoking history (age when started or quit smoking, daily average number of cigarettes smoked, attempts to quit smoking, the reasons for starting smoking), alcohol use, and behavioral problems. Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND) scores and categorical nicotine dependence variables were calculated based on individual scores. We also created dichotomous income and smoking status variables using corresponding levels. For the analyses, we used descriptive statistics, the t-test, the chi-square test, and bivariate and multivariate logistic regressions. Significant factors from the bivariate logistic regressions were included in the multivariate logistic regression analysis. Results: According to the questionnaire, 548 study participants (31.6%) were identified as smokers, smoking every day for a month or longer. The data indicated that of the 548 respondents who were smokers, 66.1% were males and only 33.9% were females. Means and standard deviations (SD) of number of cigarettes per day, age at commencement of smoking, and FTND score were 15.9 (SD = 7.8), 16.6 (SD = 3.0), and 4.4 (SD = 2.3), respectively, in males, and 13.1 (SD = 6.5), 17.4 (SD = 2.4), and 3.9 (SD = 2.4), respectively, in females. There was a significant positive correlation between FTND score and number of cigarettes per day (r = 0.612, P < 0.05) and a significant negative correlation between FTND score and age at commencement of smoking (r = -0.232, P < 0.05). The risk of smoking was 2.968 times higher in males than in females. Having a smoking sibling increased the risk of smoking 2.368 times, having a smoking mother increased the risk 1.564 times, and having a smoking father increased the risk 1.488 times. Having a high family income also increased the risk, 1.579 times. Conclusion: Our study shows that gender, the existence of a smoking person in the family, the mother's education level, and family income all play a significant role in smoking behavior among students. Increased levels of cigarette smoking and nicotine dependence in youth were observed to coincide with an increase in daily parental cigarette smoking. It is recommended that parents, along with young people, be informed about the hazards of smoking and about smoking cessation. The common assessment of both genetic and environmental factors in the development of smoking habits is of great importance.


University students, smoking, risk factors, FTND, logistic regression analysis

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