Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences




To determine the effect of passive smoking on the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) among persons who spend a long time in cafes. Materials and methods: The study sample included 348 male smokers who were older than 40 years and spend a long time in cafes. The questions were derived from the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) questionnaire. We also inquired about the nature of cafe visits (hours/day, visits/week, visits/month). Results: COPD was found in 18.1% (63/348 subjects) of the smokers aged >=40 years. In these 63 subjects, based on spirometry results, the rate of mild and moderate airflow limitation was 23.8% (15/63) and 76.2% (48/63), respectively. Of the 63, 60 (95%) had no previous diagnosis of COPD. After we had accounted for known risk factors for the development of COPD, we identified new risk factors: time spent in cafes (hours/day), the number of cafe visits per week (visits/week), and the number of cafe visits per month (visits/month), which had higher odds ratios for smokers without COPD (5.376, 2.721, and 2.337, respectively). Conclusion: Spending time in cafes regularly may contribute as an additional risk factor for the development of the COPD.


COPD, smoking, spirometry

First Page


Last Page