Turkish Journal of Chemistry

Author ORCID Identifier

AHMET CEYHAN GÖREN: 0000-0002-5470-130X

AYŞE NALBANTSOY: 0000-0002-3852-1974

AYŞE DİLA ÇAĞLAR: 0000-0002-8823-3225

ECE UYAR: 0000-0003-0480-3620

FURKAN OZAN ÇÖVEN: 0000-0001-7696-3418

GAYE SÜMER OKKALI gayesumer8@gmail.com: 0000-0003-2756-0617

GÜLCE GUCUR: 0000-0001-5954-051X

NAZLI SARIKAHYA: 0000-0002-8200-8561

SEVDA ZEINALİ: 0000-0002-0971-3838




Abies is an important genus of the family Pinaceae, with about 50 species found in the highlands of Asia, Europe, North Africa, and North and Central America. The principal aim of the present work was to investigate the chemical content and biological potential of the resin and cone from Abies nordmanniana subsp. bornmulleriana and Abies nordmanniana subsp. equi-trojani, respectively. The flavonoid and phenolic contents of the resin and cones were evaluated using liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS). Additionally, the essential oil and fatty acid compositions were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID).. Cytotoxicity of the extracts and essential oils were screened against certain cancer cell lines, namely, human prostate adenocarcinoma cells (PC3), human lung adenocarcinoma cell line (A549), human pancreatic cancer cell line (PANC-1), human hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HepG2), human breast cancer cells (MDA-MB231), and normal human lung fibroblast cells (CCD-34-LU), with MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide] assay. According to the MTT results, hexane extracts of both cone (CH) and resin (RH), ethanol-water (CEW), dichloromethane (CD), and acetone (CA) extracts of the cone mostly inflict cytotoxicity in HepG2 cell line. Antiviral activities of Abies nordmanniana subsp. extracts at doses of 5 μg/g and 10 μg/g were also evaluated in ovo for their virucidal activity against avian coronavirus. Abies nordmanniana subsp. extracts exhibited concentration-dependent antiviral activity on specific pathogen-free embryonated chicken eggs. Significantly, cone acetone extract (CA), cone ethanol extract (CE), and cone dichloromethane extract (CD) of Abies nordmanniana subsp. exhibited strong inhibition of the virus at a concentration of 10 μg/g. The most potent virucidal activity was observed with ethanol-water extract of conifer form (CEW). According to these results, it was proved that Abies nordmanniana species could be a potential, sustainable, and renewable drug source, especially considering the impressive antiviral and significant cytotoxic activity potentials.


Abies, resin, cone, cytotoxicity, antiviral activity, avian coronavirus

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This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

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