Turkish Journal of Chemistry




The intercalation of pyrazolone-based oxalamide metal complexes into Na-montmorillonite (Na-MMT) for catalytic liquid-phase oxidation of phenol using H2O2 was undertaken by a flexible ligand method using metal ions including Mn(II), Zn(II), and Sn(II). First, the metal ions were exchanged with the sodium ions of Na-MMT, and then these metal ions were complexed with a new pyrazolone-based oxalamide ligand. The intercalated metal complexes were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, elemental analysis, and thermogravimetric analysis. Phenol was successfully oxidized by heterogeneous catalysts based on Mn(II), Zn(II), and Sn(II) pyrazolone-based oxalamide complexes intercalated into Na-MMT. These heterogeneous catalysts catalyze the liquid-phase oxidation of phenol using H2O2 to catechol as the major product and hydroquinone and benzoquinone as the minor products. The Mn(II) and Zn(II) complexes intercalated into Na-MMT showed better activity than the Sn(II) complex intercalated into Na-MMT and the reaction without the catalyst. It has been shown that some metal ion complexes intercalated into Na-MMT are active catalysts for liquid-phase oxidation of phenol with hydrogen peroxide.


Intercalation, oxidation of phenol, oxalamide, Na-montmorillonite, catalyst

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